The collective book, coordinated by Sandra Kuntz, belongs to the Historias Mínimas collection of El Colegio de México. The chapters of this volume expose, from the perspective of economic history, the evolution of iron roads in several Latin American countries; the impact of the laying of roads in the economic dynamics of these nations; the development and expansion process of this means of transportation; the regional particularities and their implications in the economic development of this subcontinent.

The purpose of the book is the diffusion and dissemination of knowledge, it can be read by historians, economists, and anyone who wishes to have a basis from which to start a deep reflection on the history, expansion and impact of the railroad. Although it leaves the critical apparatus in the background, it is a scholarly book aimed at a non-specialist reader, with a general bibliography at the end of each chapter.

In the introduction, Sandra Kuntz indicates the limits and scope of the text, as well as the threads running through the different parts of the book that give it internal coherence. Each chapter deals with the particular experiences of each country studied, highlighting certain topics such as the situation of the means of transportation existing before the arrival of the railroads; the problems related to the geography and extension of the country; the influence of the State and its policies to introduce railroads; the investment and the particular development of the railroad companies in what is called “the golden age of the railroad”;1 the social and economic impact of the iron roads; and what happened to the companies at the end of the railroad boom.

Read more  Why does my ear hurt when I wear my hearing aid?

Ministry of Development

The Mexican government has the clear purpose of promoting the construction of new infrastructure, as well as the maintenance and improvement of existing infrastructure in order to promote: 1) balanced regional development; 2) sustainable urban development; and 3) logistical integration and increased interconnectivity. Through the development of quality infrastructure in the country’s strategic sectors, Mexico seeks to become a global logistics platform with high added value, thereby increasing competitiveness, productivity and prosperity at the national level. This is reflected in the following actions and sectors:

Digital map with the georeference of the country’s road infrastructure, which shows in great detail the main highways and bridges under concession, with information as of 2019 which does not present the most recent information since it is in the process of being updated.

On August 18, 2016, the Railway Transportation Regulatory Agency was created, whose purpose is to regulate, promote, oversee and verify the construction, operation, exploitation, conservation and maintenance of railway infrastructure.

Animated train track

With the electrification of the suburban networks, which began in 1919, a consistent electric traction standard was not adopted. Electrification began in Melbourne in 1919 with 1500 V DC. Sydney lines were electrified from 1926 with 1500 V DC, Brisbane lines from 1979 with 25 kV AC and Perth lines from 1992 with 25 kV AC. There has also been extensive non-urban electrification in Queensland using 25 kV AC, mainly during the 1980s for coal routes. Since 2014, Adelaide lines are gradually being electrified to 25 kV AC. The 25 kV AC voltage has become the international standard.[3] The 25 kV AC voltage has become the international standard.[3] The 25 kV AC voltage is now the international standard.

Read more  What equipment does a tennis coach need?

The first railroad was privately owned and operated by the Australian Agricultural Company in Newcastle in 1831, a fish-leg shaped cast iron rail on an inclined plane as a gravity railroad serving the A Pit coal mine. The first steam-powered line opened in Victoria in 1854. The 4 km long Flinders Street to Sandridge (now Port Melbourne) line was opened by the Hobsons Bay Railway Company at the height of the Victorian gold rush.


Order TAS/2349/2005, of July 12, establishing the regulatory bases for the granting of subsidies for disabled and elderly people, within the scope of competences of the Instituto de Mayores y Servicios Sociales (Institute for the Elderly and Social Services).

The Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, by virtue of the Royal Decree 1600/2004, of July 2, has attributed, among its functions, the execution of the policy of the Government in the matter of planning and basic regulation of the recognition of the right to a personalized subsidy to any person in situation of dependency, guaranteeing a universal, integrated and uniform system of services; the promotion of the social services, attending to the state obligations in the areas of social welfare and the promotion of cooperation with non-governmental organizations and the promotion of social volunteering, as well as, among others, the programming of the actions destined to the attention and support to people with disabilities within the framework of the state competences, being attached to the State Secretariat of Social Services, Families and Disability, the managing entity of the Social Security called Institute for the Elderly and Social Services (IMSERSO).