Examples of mitosis
The essential result of mitosis is the continuity of the hereditary information of the mother cell in each of the two daughter cells. The genome consists of a certain number of genes organized into chromosomes, tightly coiled strands of DNA that contain the genetic information vital to the cell and the organism. Since each cell must contain the complete genetic information specific to its species, the mother cell must make a copy of each chromosome before mitosis, so that the two daughter cells receive the complete information. This occurs during the S-phase of interphase, the period that alternates with mitosis in the cell cycle and in which the cell among other things prepares to divide. After duplication of the DNA, each daughter cell is able to duplicate its own DNA.
After DNA duplication, each chromosome will consist of two identical copies of the same DNA strand, called sister chromatids, joined together by a region of the chromosome called the centromere. Each sister chromatid is in that situation not considered a chromosome in itself, but part of a chromosome that provisionally consists of two chromatids.
Number of daughter cells in meiosis
During life, many of the cells that make up the body age and die. These cells must be replaced so that the body can continue to function optimally. The reasons why cells are lost and must be replaced include the following:
The process by which a cell reproduces to create two identical copies of itself is known as mitosis. The goal of mitosis is the formation of two identical cells from a single parental cell. The cells formed are known as daughter cells. For this to happen, the following must occur:
As we will see, many of the characteristics of cancer cells are due to defects in the genes that control cell division. The process of cell division occurs as an orderly progression through four distinct phases. These four stages are collectively referred to as the cell cycle. The following sections describe the cell cycle in detail. More information on the topics discussed on this page can be found in most introductory biology texts; we recommend Campbell Biology, 11th edition.1
Two daughter cells
The cell cycle comprises a whole series of events or stages that take place in the cell during its growth and division. A cell spends most of its time in the stage called interphase, and during this time it grows, duplicates its chromosomes, and prepares for cell division. Once the interphase stage is over, the cell enters mitosis and completes its division. The resulting cells, called daughter cells, begin their respective interphase stages and thus begin a new series of cell cycles.
The cell cycle is the name given to the process by which cells duplicate and give rise to two new cells. The cell cycle has different phases, which are called G1, S, G2 and M. The G1 phase is the phase in which the cell prepares to divide. To do so, it enters the S phase, which is when the cell synthesizes a copy of its entire DNA. Once the duplicated DNA is available and there is a complete extra endowment of genetic material, the cell enters the G2 phase, when it condenses and organizes the genetic material and prepares for cell division. The next step is the M phase, when mitosis takes place. That is, the cell divides the two copies of its genetic material between its two daughter cells. After completion of the M-phase, two cells are obtained (from where there was only one) and the cell cycle starts again for each of them.
What is mitosis?
There are two types of cell division, mitosis and meiosis. When people talk about “cell division,” most often they are referring to mitosis, the process of producing new cells in the body. Meiosis is the type of cell division that creates eggs and sperm.
Mitosis is a process fundamental to life. During mitosis, a cell duplicates its entire contents, including its chromosomes, and divides to form two identical daughter cells. Because of the criticality of this process, the steps of mitosis are carefully controlled by several genes. When mitosis is not properly regulated, health problems such as cancer can occur.
The information available on this site should not be used as a substitute for medical care or the advice of a medical professional. Talk to a health care professional if you have questions about your health.