Etapas del proceso de frenado

El artículo describe una metodología que permite estimar el coeficiente de fricción entre el neumático de un vehículo y la superficie de la vía, a partir de las maniobras de frenado de emergencia aplicables en el lugar donde se ha presentado un accidente de tránsito y mediante el uso de equipos de medición como el acelerómetro Vericom y, especialmente, el uso de un smartphone, que resulta ser un método fiable por su precisión en la adquisición de datos de aceleración. La metodología integra protocolos basados en la estandarización de procedimientos establecidos por la SAE y la norma internacional ISO-21994.

Este artículo describe una metodología que permite estimar el coeficiente de fricción entre el neumático de un vehículo y la superficie de la carretera, a partir de las maniobras de frenado de emergencia aplicables en el lugar de los hechos donde se ha producido un accidente de tráfico. La metodología se basa en el uso de hardware de medición como el acelerómetro Vericom y sobre todo, el uso del smartphone como uno de los métodos fiables por su precisión en la adquisición de datos de aceleración (Remolina, 2019) y (Baena, 2019). La metodología integra protocolos basados en la estandarización de procedimientos establecidos por la SAE (SAE International, 2010) y la norma internacional ISO-21994 (ISO 21994, 2007), que ha sido uno de los resultados en la investigación del análisis comparativo de métodos para la estimación del coeficiente de ficción de la huella del neumático aplicado en la reconstrucción de accidentes de tráfico (Baena, 2019), siendo importante su aplicación no sólo para obtener el coeficiente de fricción, sino para aportar seguridad en el procedimiento y calidad en la adquisición de la información.

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What is braking distance

Regulation No. 13 of the Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) of the United Nations – Uniform provisions concerning the approval of vehicles of categories M, N and O with regard to braking [2016/194].

2.3. ‘Braking system’ means a combination of parts whose function is to progressively reduce the speed of a moving vehicle, to bring it to a standstill or to keep it stationary if it is already stopped; these functions are specified in point 5.1.2.

2.4. “Control”: part directly operated by the driver (or, in the case of some trailers, by an assistant) to provide the transmission with the energy necessary to brake or regulate it. This energy may be the muscular power of the driver or from another source controlled by the driver, or, in appropriate cases, the kinetic energy of a trailer, or a combination of these various types of energy.

2.5. “Transmission” means the combination of components that are located between the control and the brake and functionally link them together. The transmission may be mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, electric or mixed. When the braking energy comes from or is aided by a source independent of the driver, the energy reserve of the system is also part of the transmission.

Reaction and braking perception

In an MOT inspection, we inspect many elements and, within the elements we inspect, the braking test is one of the fundamental ones. It is performed for all categories of vehicles: light, heavy, motorcycles, trailers, etc.

The service braking is the one that allows stopping the movement of the vehicle in a safe, fast and efficient way, in any speed and load condition and for any slope the vehicle is on.

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In the brake tester we can analyze the braking efficiency of the vehicle, i.e. the ratio between the braking forces with respect to the weight of the vehicle and the imbalance, which is the difference between the braking forces between the wheels of the same axle.

The braking test is performed at a speed of about 5.5 km/h and, as mentioned above, simulates rolling on asphalt. It is a progressive test, i.e. no sudden braking is performed and it is carried out at a minimum speed, so it cannot be considered an aggressive test for the vehicle.

What are the phases of the braking distance

2.3 BY <BRAKING DEVICE>, THE SET OF PARTS WHOSE FUNCTION IS TO PROGRESSIVELY REDUCE OR CANCEL THE SPEED OF A MOVING VEHICLE, OR TO KEEP IT STATIONARY IF IT IS ALREADY STOPPED; THESE FUNCTIONS ARE SPECIFIED IN PARAGRAPH 5.1.2. THE DEVICE IS COMPOSED OF THE CONTROL, THE TRANSMISSION AND THE BRAKE ITSELF.

2.4 BY <CONTROL>, THE PART ACTUATED DIRECTLY BY THE DRIVER (OR, IN THE CASE OF A TRAILER, BY THE ASSISTANT) PROVIDING THE TRANSMISSION WITH THE ENERGY NECESSARY FOR BRAKING OR FOR CONTROLLING IT. THIS ENERGY MAY BE THE MUSCULAR ENERGY OF THE DRIVER OR THAT OF ANOTHER SOURCE OF ENERGY CONTROLLED BY THE DRIVER, WHICH MAY BE THE KINETIC ENERGY OF THE TRAILER, OR A COMBINATION OF THESE TYPES OF ENERGY.

2.5 BY <TRANSMISSION>, THE SET OF ELEMENTS COMPRISED BETWEEN THE CONTROL AND THE BRAKE, LINKING THEM IN A FUNCTIONAL WAY. THE TRANSMISSION CAN BE MECHANICAL, HYDRAULIC, PNEUMATIC, ELECTRIC OR MIXED. WHEN THE BRAKING IS PRODUCED OR REINFORCED BY A SOURCE OF ENERGY INDEPENDENT OF THE DRIVER BUT CONTROLLED BY HIM, THE ENERGY RESERVE CARRIED BY THE DEVICE IS ALSO PART OF THE TRANSMISSION.